How to write critically – critical analysis

hello again now in today’s video what I’m going to talk about a little bit is how to write critically so when you’re in degree program you’re required to write critically particularly as you get to the final year of the degree and I find that students often find this just a little bit confusing so what does it mean it’s actually very straightforward two things to remember context and credibility so we start first of all with credibility this is basically what was your source where are you getting this source from clearly if again your source of a meme or from Facebook something you are really wasting your time what we’re normally looking for is journal papers and the reason we look for journal papers is that those are written with a sole intention of exploring and developing new knowledge so journal typically looks a little bit like this although of course you’ll now use an electronic version of it effectively if you are accessing a journal online it’s the equivalent to access the paper one you can spot them a mile off because they tend to be quite plain quite boring although incredibly interesting if that’s what you’re into and of course it’s just a collection of articles written usually by people who were working in universities or equivalent and people who are just trying to push the boundaries of knowledge so what you’re looking at is relatively up-to-date it is challenging questioning in its own right often written in a critical style and effectively it is new knowledge that’s been developed okay so it’s pushing boundaries so that’s the kind of boss one if you like next to that we have our general textbook and of course the general textbook is really just like a self-help guide it’s a hand to set of instructions so it’s only got a final you have a degree you should have moved beyond that sort of general textbook that’s the kind of a recipe book if you like so it’s brilliant for learning but not necessarily for critical fort this is telling you how to dissect things if you like but not a how to think critically so first of all credibility the source main form make sure it’s from a journal ideally or from a textbook that’s pushing the boundaries do some research on the author if you get a chance to just to see what other papers they publish in this field to see that they are someone renowned and pushing in that sort of area and again like I said it doesn’t matter if it’s online providing its recognized Jennifer you can look at Journal rankings online if you’re really interested and it can show you the way in which there’s a rent and they’re ranked by how often their side of our people so once we get out of the way and nobody hopefully is using a tabloid newspaper or I mean the next thing is to think about context the context in which the paper was written you see for example I can tell you that I love pizza I love my partner and I love our children and you understand that those three different loves means something completely different each time that’s because it’s context so the same sort of thing applies with a journal paper a journal paper written in the context of looking say at American industry is based around the American cultural context that may limit it when you’re applying into sir perhaps industrial context in in southern Europe for example so have a think about the the context in which the paper was written maybe its geographic location maybe think about the types of people under study or whatever under consideration it doesn’t matter about the field there will still be a context related to it perhaps if you’re doing the sports field its elite athletes as opposed amateur athletes perhaps if you’re looking at in a sociological perspective it’s referring to one social group as opposed to another or one geographic location as to books whatever this doesn’t that invalidate the paper but what it does mean is that the paper may be context specific so that’s something to explore in your writing so as you use the theories from this paper that would be a sort of you know however or it has to be considered or it has to be borne in mind that this author of this paper was referring to a specific context so we can examine things in that way see what we’re trying to do on the finally over degree and beyond of course is move ourselves from a kind of a description if you like to a critical understanding is if you like it’s moving from knowing when Marx was born to knowing what Marx’s furious we’ve been able to apply Marxist fearing to the rise of Donald Trump or knowing what Porter’s five forces are all being able to explain the analysis of Porter’s five forces to being able to examining a specific changer so that the growth of facebook related to Porter’s five forces but of course being able to critically examine why Porter’s five forces may not be appropriate for application towards a company with the sort of novel features that Facebook have so it’s not a matter of disrespecting anybody it’s not a matter of being cynical and certainly not a matter of trying to find holes if you like rather it’s just a matter of examining context and trying to understand that the theory that you’re using was written at a specific time for specific purpose perhaps we were specific group of people in mind and that might not always apply so we are not correcting the past if you like but we are accepting the past and accepting the context in which that past found itself and then not allowing that to cloud our judgment as to current situations so two things think about the the credibility of the source and the context was if you started off of your critical analysis you won’t go far wrong and you are looking as I said not to repeat somebody else’s views but actually to find your own way in this and to examine and explore those contradictions that come up and those contexts specific points and let that develop in your piece of writing and that will lead you to write some wonderful critical essays